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                    史上最全最強SpringMVC詳細示例實戰教程

                    來源:Sunnier 發布時間:2015-06-22 閱讀次數:

                     一、SpringMVC基礎入門,創建一個HelloWorld程序

                      1.首先,導入SpringMVC需要的jar包。

                      2.添加Web.xml配置文件中關于SpringMVC的配置

                      <!--configure the setting of springmvcDispatcherServlet and configure the mapping-->
                      <servlet>
                          <servlet-name>springmvc</servlet-name>
                          <servlet-class>org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet</servlet-class>
                          <init-param>
                                <param-name>contextConfigLocation</param-name>
                                <param-value>classpath:springmvc-servlet.xml</param-value>
                            </init-param>
                            <!-- <load-on-startup>1</load-on-startup> -->
                      </servlet>
                    
                      <servlet-mapping>
                          <servlet-name>springmvc</servlet-name>
                          <url-pattern>/</url-pattern>
                      </servlet-mapping>

                      3.在src下添加springmvc-servlet.xml配置文件

                    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
                    <beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
                        xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
                        xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"
                        xmlns:mvc="http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc"
                        xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
                            http://www.springframework.org/schema/context http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context-4.1.xsd
                            http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc/spring-mvc-4.1.xsd">                    
                    
                        <!-- scan the package and the sub package -->
                        <context:component-scan base-package="test.SpringMVC"/>
                    
                        <!-- don't handle the static resource -->
                        <mvc:default-servlet-handler />
                    
                        <!-- if you use annotation you must configure following setting -->
                        <mvc:annotation-driven />
                        
                        <!-- configure the InternalResourceViewResolver -->
                        <bean class="org.springframework.web.servlet.view.InternalResourceViewResolver" 
                                id="internalResourceViewResolver">
                            <!-- 前綴 -->
                            <property name="prefix" value="/WEB-INF/jsp/" />
                            <!-- 后綴 -->
                            <property name="suffix" value=".jsp" />
                        </bean>
                    </beans>

                      4.在WEB-INF文件夾下創建名為jsp的文件夾,用來存放jsp視圖。創建一個hello.jsp,在body中添加“Hello World”。

                      5.建立包及Controller,如下所示

                      6.編寫Controller代碼

                    @Controller
                    @RequestMapping("/mvc")
                    public class mvcController {
                    
                        @RequestMapping("/hello")
                        public String hello(){        
                            return "hello";
                        }
                    }

                      7.啟動服務器,鍵入 http://localhost:8080/項目名/mvc/hello

                     二、配置解析

                      1.Dispatcherservlet

                      DispatcherServlet是前置控制器,配置在web.xml文件中的。攔截匹配的請求,Servlet攔截匹配規則要自已定義,把攔截下來的請求,依據相應的規則分發到目標Controller來處理,是配置spring MVC的第一步。

                      2.InternalResourceViewResolver

                      視圖名稱解析器

                      3.以上出現的注解

                      @Controller 負責注冊一個bean 到spring 上下文中

                      @RequestMapping 注解為控制器指定可以處理哪些 URL 請求

                     三、SpringMVC常用注解

                      @Controller

                      負責注冊一個bean 到spring 上下文中

                      @RequestMapping

                      注解為控制器指定可以處理哪些 URL 請求

                      @RequestBody

                      該注解用于讀取Request請求的body部分數據,使用系統默認配置的HttpMessageConverter進行解析,然后把相應的數據綁定到要返回的對象上 ,再把HttpMessageConverter返回的對象數據綁定到 controller中方法的參數上

                      @ResponseBody

                      該注解用于將Controller的方法返回的對象,通過適當的HttpMessageConverter轉換為指定格式后,寫入到Response對象的body數據區

                      @ModelAttribute    

                      在方法定義上使用 @ModelAttribute 注解:Spring MVC 在調用目標處理方法前,會先逐個調用在方法級上標注了@ModelAttribute 的方法

                      在方法的入參前使用 @ModelAttribute 注解:可以從隱含對象中獲取隱含的模型數據中獲取對象,再將請求參數 –綁定到對象中,再傳入入參將方法入參對象添加到模型中 

                      @RequestParam 

                      在處理方法入參處使用 @RequestParam 可以把請求參 數傳遞給請求方法

                      @PathVariable

                      綁定 URL 占位符到入參

                      @ExceptionHandler

                      注解到方法上,出現異常時會執行該方法

                      @ControllerAdvice

                      使一個Contoller成為全局的異常處理類,類中用@ExceptionHandler方法注解的方法可以處理所有Controller發生的異常

                     四、自動匹配參數

                      //match automatically
                      @RequestMapping("/person")
                      public String toPerson(String name,double age){
                          System.out.println(name+" "+age);
                          return "hello";
                      }

                     五、自動裝箱

                      1.編寫一個Person實體類

                    package test.SpringMVC.model;
                    
                    public class Person {
                        public String getName() {
                            return name;
                        }
                        public void setName(String name) {
                            this.name = name;
                        }
                        public int getAge() {
                            return age;
                        }
                        public void setAge(int age) {
                            this.age = age;
                        }
                        private String name;
                        private int age;
                        
                    }

                      2.在Controller里編寫方法

                      //boxing automatically
                      @RequestMapping("/person1")
                      public String toPerson(Person p){
                          System.out.println(p.getName()+" "+p.getAge());
                          return "hello";
                      }

                     六、使用InitBinder來處理Date類型的參數

                     //the parameter was converted in initBinder
                     @RequestMapping("/date")
                     public String date(Date date){
                         System.out.println(date);
                         return "hello";
                     }
                        
                     //At the time of initialization,convert the type "String" to type "date"
                     @InitBinder
                     public void initBinder(ServletRequestDataBinder binder){
                         binder.registerCustomEditor(Date.class, new CustomDateEditor(new SimpleDateFormat("yyyy-MM-dd"),
                                 true));
                     }

                     七、向前臺傳遞參數

                     //pass the parameters to front-end
                     @RequestMapping("/show")
                     public String showPerson(Map<String,Object> map){
                         Person p =new Person();
                         map.put("p", p);
                         p.setAge(20);
                         p.setName("jayjay");
                         return "show";
                     }

                      前臺可在Request域中取到"p"

                     八、使用Ajax調用

                     //pass the parameters to front-end using ajax
                     @RequestMapping("/getPerson")
                     public void getPerson(String name,PrintWriter pw){
                         pw.write("hello,"+name);        
                     }
                     @RequestMapping("/name")
                     public String sayHello(){
                         return "name";
                     }

                      前臺用下面的Jquery代碼調用

                     $(function(){
                         $("#btn").click(function(){
                            $.post("mvc/getPerson",{name:$("#name").val()},function(data){
                                 alert(data);
                             });
                         });
                     });

                     九、在Controller中使用redirect方式處理請求

                      //redirect 
                      @RequestMapping("/redirect")
                      public String redirect(){
                          return "redirect:hello";
                      }

                     十、文件上傳

                      1.需要導入兩個jar包

                      2.在SpringMVC配置文件中加入

                      <!-- upload settings -->
                      <bean id="multipartResolver"  class="org.springframework.web.multipart.commons.CommonsMultipartResolver">
                          <property name="maxUploadSize" value="102400000"></property>
                      </bean>

                      3.方法代碼

                        @RequestMapping(value="/upload",method=RequestMethod.POST)
                        public String upload(HttpServletRequest req) throws Exception{
                            MultipartHttpServletRequest mreq = (MultipartHttpServletRequest)req;
                            MultipartFile file = mreq.getFile("file");
                            String fileName = file.getOriginalFilename();
                            SimpleDateFormat sdf = new SimpleDateFormat("yyyyMMddHHmmss");        
                            FileOutputStream fos = new FileOutputStream(req.getSession().getServletContext().getRealPath("/")+
                                    "upload/"+sdf.format(new Date())+fileName.substring(fileName.lastIndexOf('.')));
                            fos.write(file.getBytes());
                            fos.flush();
                            fos.close();
                            
                            return "hello";
                        }

                      4.前臺form表單

                       <form action="mvc/upload" method="post" enctype="multipart/form-data">
                           <input type="file" name="file"><br>
                           <input type="submit" value="submit">
                       </form>

                     十一、使用@RequestParam注解指定參數的name

                    @Controller
                    @RequestMapping("/test")
                    public class mvcController1 {
                        @RequestMapping(value="/param")
                        public String testRequestParam(@RequestParam(value="id") Integer id,
                                @RequestParam(value="name")String name){
                            System.out.println(id+" "+name);
                            return "/hello";
                        }    
                    }

                     十二、RESTFul風格的SringMVC

                      1.RestController

                    @Controller
                    @RequestMapping("/rest")
                    public class RestController {
                        @RequestMapping(value="/user/{id}",method=RequestMethod.GET)
                        public String get(@PathVariable("id") Integer id){
                            System.out.println("get"+id);
                            return "/hello";
                        }
                        
                        @RequestMapping(value="/user/{id}",method=RequestMethod.POST)
                        public String post(@PathVariable("id") Integer id){
                            System.out.println("post"+id);
                            return "/hello";
                        }
                        
                        @RequestMapping(value="/user/{id}",method=RequestMethod.PUT)
                        public String put(@PathVariable("id") Integer id){
                            System.out.println("put"+id);
                            return "/hello";
                        }
                        
                        @RequestMapping(value="/user/{id}",method=RequestMethod.DELETE)
                        public String delete(@PathVariable("id") Integer id){
                            System.out.println("delete"+id);
                            return "/hello";
                        }
                        
                    }

                      2.form表單發送put和delete請求

                      在web.xml中配置

                      <!-- configure the HiddenHttpMethodFilter,convert the post method to put or delete -->
                      <filter>
                          <filter-name>HiddenHttpMethodFilter</filter-name>
                          <filter-class>org.springframework.web.filter.HiddenHttpMethodFilter</filter-class>
                      </filter>
                      <filter-mapping>
                          <filter-name>HiddenHttpMethodFilter</filter-name>
                          <url-pattern>/*</url-pattern>
                      </filter-mapping>

                      在前臺可以用以下代碼產生請求

                        <form action="rest/user/1" method="post">
                            <input type="hidden" name="_method" value="PUT">
                            <input type="submit" value="put">
                        </form>
                        
                        <form action="rest/user/1" method="post">
                            <input type="submit" value="post">
                        </form>
                        
                        <form action="rest/user/1" method="get">
                            <input type="submit" value="get">
                        </form>
                        
                        <form action="rest/user/1" method="post">
                            <input type="hidden" name="_method" value="DELETE">
                            <input type="submit" value="delete">
                        </form>

                     十三、返回json格式的字符串

                      1.導入以下jar包

                      2.方法代碼

                    @Controller
                    @RequestMapping("/json")
                    public class jsonController {
                        
                        @ResponseBody
                        @RequestMapping("/user")
                        public  User get(){
                            User u = new User();
                            u.setId(1);
                            u.setName("jayjay");
                            u.setBirth(new Date());
                            return u;
                        }
                    }

                     十四、異常的處理

                      1.處理局部異常(Controller內)

                     @ExceptionHandler
                     public ModelAndView exceptionHandler(Exception ex){
                         ModelAndView mv = new ModelAndView("error");
                         mv.addObject("exception", ex);
                         System.out.println("in testExceptionHandler");
                         return mv;
                     }
                        
                     @RequestMapping("/error")
                     public String error(){
                         int i = 5/0;
                         return "hello";
                     }

                      2.處理全局異常(所有Controller)

                    @ControllerAdvice
                    public class testControllerAdvice {
                        @ExceptionHandler
                        public ModelAndView exceptionHandler(Exception ex){
                            ModelAndView mv = new ModelAndView("error");
                            mv.addObject("exception", ex);
                            System.out.println("in testControllerAdvice");
                            return mv;
                        }
                    }

                      3.另一種處理全局異常的方法

                      在SpringMVC配置文件中配置

                      <!-- configure SimpleMappingExceptionResolver -->
                      <bean class="org.springframework.web.servlet.handler.SimpleMappingExceptionResolver">
                          <property name="exceptionMappings">
                              <props>
                                  <prop key="java.lang.ArithmeticException">error</prop>
                              </props>
                          </property>
                      </bean>

                      error是出錯頁面

                     十五、設置一個自定義攔截器

                      1.創建一個MyInterceptor類,并實現HandlerInterceptor接口

                    public class MyInterceptor implements HandlerInterceptor {
                    
                        @Override
                        public void afterCompletion(HttpServletRequest arg0,
                                HttpServletResponse arg1, Object arg2, Exception arg3)
                                throws Exception {
                            System.out.println("afterCompletion");
                        }
                    
                        @Override
                        public void postHandle(HttpServletRequest arg0, HttpServletResponse arg1,
                                Object arg2, ModelAndView arg3) throws Exception {
                            System.out.println("postHandle");
                        }
                    
                        @Override
                        public boolean preHandle(HttpServletRequest arg0, HttpServletResponse arg1,
                                Object arg2) throws Exception {
                            System.out.println("preHandle");
                            return true;
                        }
                    
                    }

                      2.在SpringMVC的配置文件中配置

                        <!-- interceptor setting -->
                        <mvc:interceptors>
                            <mvc:interceptor>
                                <mvc:mapping path="/mvc/**"/>
                                <bean class="test.SpringMVC.Interceptor.MyInterceptor"></bean>
                            </mvc:interceptor>        
                        </mvc:interceptors>

                      3.攔截器執行順序

                     十六、表單的驗證(使用Hibernate-validate)及國際化

                      1.導入Hibernate-validate需要的jar包

                    (未選中不用導入)

                      2.編寫實體類User并加上驗證注解

                    public class User {
                        public int getId() {
                            return id;
                        }
                        public void setId(int id) {
                            this.id = id;
                        }
                        public String getName() {
                            return name;
                        }
                        public void setName(String name) {
                            this.name = name;
                        }
                        public Date getBirth() {
                            return birth;
                        }
                        public void setBirth(Date birth) {
                            this.birth = birth;
                        }
                        @Override
                        public String toString() {
                            return "User [id=" + id + ", name=" + name + ", birth=" + birth + "]";
                        }    
                        private int id;
                        @NotEmpty
                        private String name;
                    
                        @Past
                        @DateTimeFormat(pattern="yyyy-MM-dd")
                        private Date birth;
                    }

                      ps:@Past表示時間必須是一個過去值

                      3.在jsp中使用SpringMVC的form表單

                        <form:form action="form/add" method="post" modelAttribute="user">
                            id:<form:input path="id"/><form:errors path="id"/><br>
                            name:<form:input path="name"/><form:errors path="name"/><br>
                            birth:<form:input path="birth"/><form:errors path="birth"/>
                            <input type="submit" value="submit">
                        </form:form> 

                      ps:path對應name

                      4.Controller中代碼

                    @Controller
                    @RequestMapping("/form")
                    public class formController {
                        @RequestMapping(value="/add",method=RequestMethod.POST)    
                        public String add(@Valid User u,BindingResult br){
                            if(br.getErrorCount()>0){            
                                return "addUser";
                            }
                            return "showUser";
                        }
                        
                        @RequestMapping(value="/add",method=RequestMethod.GET)
                        public String add(Map<String,Object> map){
                            map.put("user",new User());
                            return "addUser";
                        }
                    }

                      ps:

                      1.因為jsp中使用了modelAttribute屬性,所以必須在request域中有一個"user".

                      [email protected] 表示按照在實體上標記的注解驗證參數

                      3.返回到原頁面錯誤信息回回顯,表單也會回顯

                      5.錯誤信息自定義

                      在src目錄下添加locale.properties

                    NotEmpty.user.name=name can't not be empty
                    Past.user.birth=birth should be a past value
                    DateTimeFormat.user.birth=the format of input is wrong
                    typeMismatch.user.birth=the format of input is wrong
                    typeMismatch.user.id=the format of input is wrong

                      在SpringMVC配置文件中配置

                        <!-- configure the locale resource -->
                        <bean id="messageSource" class="org.springframework.context.support.ResourceBundleMessageSource">
                            <property name="basename" value="locale"></property>
                        </bean>

                      6.國際化顯示

                      在src下添加locale_zh_CN.properties

                    username=賬號
                    password=密碼

                      locale.properties中添加

                    username=user name
                    password=password

                      創建一個locale.jsp

                      <body>
                        <fmt:message key="username"></fmt:message>
                        <fmt:message key="password"></fmt:message>
                      </body>

                      在SpringMVC中配置

                        <!-- make the jsp page can be visited -->
                        <mvc:view-controller path="/locale" view-name="locale"/>

                      讓locale.jsp在WEB-INF下也能直接訪問

                      最后,訪問locale.jsp,切換瀏覽器語言,能看到賬號和密碼的語言也切換了

                     十七、壓軸大戲--整合SpringIOC和SpringMVC

                      1.創建一個test.SpringMVC.integrate的包用來演示整合,并創建各類

                      2.User實體類

                    public class User {
                        public int getId() {
                            return id;
                        }
                        public void setId(int id) {
                            this.id = id;
                        }
                        public String getName() {
                            return name;
                        }
                        public void setName(String name) {
                            this.name = name;
                        }
                        public Date getBirth() {
                            return birth;
                        }
                        public void setBirth(Date birth) {
                            this.birth = birth;
                        }
                        @Override
                        public String toString() {
                            return "User [id=" + id + ", name=" + name + ", birth=" + birth + "]";
                        }    
                        private int id;
                        @NotEmpty
                        private String name;
                    
                        @Past
                        @DateTimeFormat(pattern="yyyy-MM-dd")
                        private Date birth;
                    }

                      3.UserService類

                    @Component
                    public class UserService {
                        public UserService(){
                            System.out.println("UserService Constructor...\n\n\n\n\n\n");
                        }
                        
                        public void save(){
                            System.out.println("save");
                        }
                    }

                      4.UserController

                    @Controller
                    @RequestMapping("/integrate")
                    public class UserController {
                        @Autowired
                        private UserService userService;
                        
                        @RequestMapping("/user")
                        public String saveUser(@RequestBody @ModelAttribute User u){
                            System.out.println(u);
                            userService.save();
                            return "hello";
                        }
                    }

                      5.Spring配置文件

                      在src目錄下創建SpringIOC的配置文件applicationContext.xml

                    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
                    <beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
                        xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
                        xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans  
                            http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd 
                            http://www.springframework.org/schema/util 
                            http://www.springframework.org/schema/util/spring-util-4.0.xsd
                            http://www.springframework.org/schema/context
                            http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context.xsd
                            "
                            xmlns:util="http://www.springframework.org/schema/util"
                            xmlns:p="http://www.springframework.org/schema/p"
                            xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"    
                            >
                        <context:component-scan base-package="test.SpringMVC.integrate">
                            <context:exclude-filter type="annotation" 
                                expression="org.springframework.stereotype.Controller"/>
                            <context:exclude-filter type="annotation" 
                                expression="org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.ControllerAdvice"/>        
                        </context:component-scan>
                        
                    </beans>

                      在Web.xml中添加配置

                      <!-- configure the springIOC -->
                      <listener>
                          <listener-class>org.springframework.web.context.ContextLoaderListener</listener-class>
                      </listener>
                      <context-param>  
                        <param-name>contextConfigLocation</param-name>  
                        <param-value>classpath:applicationContext.xml</param-value>
                      </context-param>

                      6.在SpringMVC中進行一些配置,防止SpringMVC和SpringIOC對同一個對象的管理重合

                    <!-- scan the package and the sub package -->
                        <context:component-scan base-package="test.SpringMVC.integrate">
                            <context:include-filter type="annotation" 
                                expression="org.springframework.stereotype.Controller"/>
                            <context:include-filter type="annotation" 
                                expression="org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.ControllerAdvice"/>
                        </context:component-scan>

                     十八、SpringMVC詳細運行流程圖

                     十九、SpringMVC與struts2的區別

                      1、springmvc基于方法開發的,struts2基于類開發的。springmvc將url和controller里的方法映射。映射成功后springmvc生成一個Handler對象,對象中只包括了一個method。方法執行結束,形參數據銷毀。springmvc的controller開發類似web service開發。

                      2、springmvc可以進行單例開發,并且建議使用單例開發,struts2通過類的成員變量接收參數,無法使用單例,只能使用多例。

                      3、經過實際測試,struts2速度慢,在于使用struts標簽,如果使用struts建議使用jstl。

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